Christians in iceland

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Christians In Iceland Video

The rise of racism in Iceland Christians in iceland

The religio-political organisation of early Iceland has been defined as "pagan and anti-monarchic", which distinguished it from other Germanic societies.

Concerning other religious practices, the Icelanders followed Scandinavian norms; they built temples enshrining images of the gods.

Apart from the Irish papar , Christianity had been present in Iceland from the start even among the Germanic settlers.

Icelanders generally tended to syncretism , integrating Jesus Christ among their deities rather than converting to the Christian doctrine.

It is recorded in the Eyrbyggja saga that as Norway was being Christianised, a pagan temple was dismantled there to be reassembled in Iceland.

Christian missionaries began to be active in Iceland by One of them was the Icelandic native Thorvald Konradsson , who had been baptised on the continent by the Saxon bishop Fridrek, with whom he preached the gospel in Iceland in , converting only Thorvald's father Konrad and his family.

They were unsuccessful and even had a clash with pagans at the Althing, killing two men. Among the other proselytisers, King Olaf of Norway sent the Icelandic native Stefnir Thorgilsson in — and the Saxon priest Thangbrand in — Iceland sent a delegation, belonging to the Christian faction, to obtain the release of the hostages and promise the conversion of the country to Christianity.

Meanwhile, in Iceland the situation was worsening, as the two religious factions had divided the country and a civil war was about to break out.

However, the mediation of the Althing, presided by the lawspeaker Thorgeir Thorkelsson , thwarted the conflict. After one day and one night, he decided that, in order to keep peace, the population had to be united under one law and one religion, Christianity, and all the non-Christians among the population would have received baptism.

At first, it was maintained the right for people to sacrifice to the old gods in private, though it was punishable if witnesses were provided.

A few years later, these provisions allowing private cults were abolished. He is credited with having instituted a tithe system which made the Icelandic church financially independent and strengthened Christianity.

The two bishops, who were not well versed in theology but were men of great power, were in conflict with one another and threatened open conflict.

At the Althing of they came with their own armed contingents, though they reconciled because of the threat posed by a new, common enemy, the spread of Lutheranism.

Lutheran pamphlets were introduced in Iceland through trade with Germany. In , the Althing ordained that "all shall continue in the Holy Faith and the Law of God, which God has given to us, and which the Holy Fathers have confirmed".

The most important figure in early Icelandic Lutheranism was, however, Gissur Einarsson , who during a period of study in Germany learned about the Reformation.

Then Christian III ordered the dissolution of the monasteries. Gissur was only 25 years old and it was difficult for him to maintain power, especially as he was opposed by the clergy and even by the old bishop.

Bishop Gissur, who was ordained by the Danish bishop Peder Palladius , reorganised the church in his diocese according to Lutheran principles, including the suppression of Catholic ceremonies and the exhortation of clergy marriage.

He also imprisoned Gissur's appointed successor. Institutional opposition to the Reformation had now vanished, so that church properties were secularised and churches and monasteries were plundered.

However, it took many decades for Lutheranism to be firmly established in Iceland. Church manuals and hymnals were in bad Danish translations, and new schools had to be set up in cathedral towns to train the Lutheran clergy.

Bishop Palladius was in charge of the development of the Icelandic Lutheran church in those early years. In the first Icelandic translation of the Bible was published.

Since the end of the 19th century, Iceland has been more open to new religious ideas than many other European countries.

Since the late 20th century there has been a rapid diversification of religious life in the country. This may have been assisted by the Icelandic language 's literary tradition that predates the island's conversion to Christianity, the Eddas and the Sagas , which are well known by most Icelanders, providing an unbroken link with the pagan past.

In , four men proposed to found an organisation for the revitalisation of the pre-Christian northern Germanic religion.

In the early s, Zuism , a revival of the Sumerian religion , was founded in Iceland and formally registered in Zuism, unlike other religions, promised to share among its adherents the money it receives from the tax, so that in a few weeks thousands of people joined the church.

After a legal struggle, the original directors were reinstated as the leaders of the movement, and by October , after two years of frozen activity, the case was closed allowing the church to dispose of its taxes.

As of , In , As of , the Catholic Church is the largest non-Lutheran form of Christianity in Iceland, accounting for 3.

The latter moved to France at the age of thirteen and became a Jesuit , remaining in Society of Jesus for the rest of his life.

He was a valued author of books for children, written in German, and even appeared on postage stamps. As of , 0. As of they had members 0. The Jehovah's Witnesses in Iceland were , or 0.

From the s there has been a rebirth of the northern Germanic religion in Iceland. Zuism in was the religion of about 0.

Organizers promised those registering with Zuism their church tax would be refunded. The largest Buddhist organisation in Iceland, the Buddhist Association of Iceland, had 1, members in , or 0.

Other Buddhist organisations present in Iceland are the Soka Gakkai International with members , Zen in Iceland with members , and the Tibetan Buddhist Fellowship with 17 members.

Collectively they accounted for 0. Islam is the religion of a small minority in Iceland. Together they comprised about 0.

The Danish scholar of religion Margit Warburg speculates that the Icelandic people are culturally more open to religious innovation.

The Jewish population in Iceland is not large enough to be registered as a separate religious group. There are no synagogues or prayer houses in the country.

There was no significant Jewish population or emigration to Iceland until the 20th century, though some Jewish merchants lived in Iceland temporarily during the 19th century.

The Icelanders' attitude towards the Jews has mostly been neutral, although in the early 20th century the intellectual Steinn Emilsson was influenced by anti-Semitic ideas while studying in Germany.

Although most Icelanders deplored the persecutions of Jews during the Second World War , they usually refused entry to Jews who were fleeing Nazi Germany, so the Jewish population did not rise much during the war.

The number of Hindus in Iceland is unknown. There are, however, a Sri Chinmoy centre, Ananda Marga , and other organisations of meditation and philosophy.

There are between 15 and 25 Sikh families in Iceland. Since s they are trying to get their own gurdwara built. One of the first, if not first, Sikh in Iceland was Manjit Singh.

He had to change his name to Ari Singh, as the Icelandic government does not issue citizenship to non-Icelandic first names.

It is similar to the Norwegian Humanist Association , and like it is recognised as a life stance community by the state since , and therefore can receive funds from the state.

As of , it had 2, registered members, or 0. Article All persons have the right to form religious associations and to practice their religion in conformity with their individual convictions.

Nothing may however be preached or practised which is prejudicial to good morals or public order. Article No one may lose any of his civil or national rights on account of his religion, nor may anyone refuse to perform any generally applicable civil duty on religious grounds.

Everyone shall be free to remain outside religious associations. No one shall be obliged to pay any personal dues to any religious association of which he is not a member.

A person who is not a member of any religious association shall pay to the University of Iceland the dues that he would have had to pay to such an association, if he had been a member.

This may be amended by law. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Independent Lutheran Congregation 0.

Catholic Church 4. Gissur Teitsson and Hjalti Skeggjason returned to Iceland. And the next morning, he got up and sent word that people should go to the Law Rock.

And once people had arrived there, he began his speech, and said that he thought people's affairs had come to a bad pass, if they were not all have the same law in this country, and tried to persuade them in many ways that they should not let this happen, and said it would give rise to such discord that it was certainly to be expected that fights would take place between people by which the land would be laid waste.

It will prove true that if we tear apart the law, we will also tear apart the peace. It was then proclaimed in the laws that all people should be Christian, and that those in this country who had not yet been baptised should receive baptism; but the old laws should stand as regards the exposure of children and the eating of horse-flesh.

People had the right to sacrifice in secret, if they wished, but it would be punishable by the lesser outlawry if witnesses were produced.

It is without doubt that social attitudes changed radically in short time after the conversion. The first clergymen were foreigners, mostly from England or the Holy Roman Empire.

It is lawful for a man to have a priestling taught for his church. He is to make an agreement with the boy himself if he is sixteen winters old, but if he is younger, he is to make it with his legal administrator.

The whole agreement they make between them is to be binding. If they make no special agreement and a man takes the priestling for his church in accordance with the article of the law, then he is to provide him with instruction and fostering; and have him chastised only in such a way that it brings no shame on the boy or his kin; and treat him as if he were his own child.

Besides landowners, missionary bishops played a significant role in the early development of the local Church. If bishops or priests come to this country who are not versed in the Latin language , whether they are "Armenians" or Russians , it is lawful for people to hear their services if they wish.

But they are not to be paid for services and no priestly office is to be accepted from them. If anyone allows a bishop who is not versed in Latin to consecrate a church or to confirm children , he must pay a fine of three marks to the resident bishop and the latter is also to take the consecration fee.

Many bishops in the period were related to the Haukdaelir , Oddaverjar or other powerful families. The 13th-century historian, Snorri Sturluson was the first Icelandic chieftain who swore allegiance, around , to a Norwegian monarch.

King Haakon VI of Norway — was succeeded by his minor son, Olaf Haakonsson — who had some years before inherited Denmark.

The epidemic known as Black Death reached Iceland in The so-called "English Century" of Icelandic history, which was characterized by the growing influence of English seamen and merchants, [74] began around The English competed with the German merchants of the Hansa Towns for the control over trade with Iceland.

Connections with the Hansa Towns contributed to the early appearance of Protestant ideas , because most German merchants who settled in Iceland accepted Martin Luther 's teaching.

King Christian II of Denmark — was the first Scandinavian monarch to have contemplated the introduction of the Reformation in his realms, but he was dethroned.

Young men studying in Germany were the first Icelanders who accepted Lutheran ideas, [84] but most Icelanders remained faithful to their traditional faith.

The elderly bishop openly opposed the Lutheran Church Ordinance [91] which was introduced in Denmark in The Reformation was a culture shock for the Icelanders.

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